Illustration of Producer Consumer Problem in Golang

The problem describes two processes, the producer and the consumer, who share a common, fixed-size buffer used as a queue. The producer's job is to generate data, put it into the buffer, and start again. At the same time, the consumer is consuming the data (i.e., removing it from the buffer), one piece at a time. The problem is to make sure that the producer won't try to add data into the buffer if it's full and that the consumer won't try to remove data from an empty buffer. The solution for the producer is to either go to sleep or discard data if the buffer is full. The next time the consumer removes an item from the buffer, it notifies the producer, who starts to fill the buffer again. In the same way, the consumer can go to sleep if it finds the buffer empty. The next time the producer puts data into the buffer, it wakes up the sleeping consumer.


package main

import (

type Consumer struct {
	msgs *chan int

// NewConsumer creates a Consumer
func NewConsumer(msgs *chan int) *Consumer {
	return &Consumer{msgs: msgs}

// consume reads the msgs channel
func (c *Consumer) consume() {
	fmt.Println("consume: Started")
	for {
		msg := <-*c.msgs
		fmt.Println("consume: Received:", msg)

// Producer definition
type Producer struct {
	msgs *chan int
	done *chan bool

// NewProducer creates a Producer
func NewProducer(msgs *chan int, done *chan bool) *Producer {
	return &Producer{msgs: msgs, done: done}

// produce creates and sends the message through msgs channel
func (p *Producer) produce(max int) {
	fmt.Println("produce: Started")
	for i := 0; i < max; i++ {
		fmt.Println("produce: Sending ", i)
		*p.msgs <- i
	*p.done <- true // signal when done
	fmt.Println("produce: Done")

func main() {
	// profile flags
	cpuprofile := flag.String("cpuprofile", "", "write cpu profile to `file`")
	memprofile := flag.String("memprofile", "", "write memory profile to `file`")

	// get the maximum number of messages from flags
	max := flag.Int("n", 5, "defines the number of messages")


	// utilize the max num of cores available

	// CPU Profile
	if *cpuprofile != "" {
		f, err := os.Create(*cpuprofile)
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatal("could not create CPU profile: ", err)
		if err := pprof.StartCPUProfile(f); err != nil {
			log.Fatal("could not start CPU profile: ", err)
		defer pprof.StopCPUProfile()

	var msgs = make(chan int)  // channel to send messages
	var done = make(chan bool) // channel to control when production is done

	// Start a goroutine for Produce.produce
	go NewProducer(&msgs, &done).produce(*max)

	// Start a goroutine for Consumer.consume
	go NewConsumer(&msgs).consume()

	// Finish the program when the production is done

	// Memory Profile
	if *memprofile != "" {
		f, err := os.Create(*memprofile)
		if err != nil {
			log.Fatal("could not create memory profile: ", err)
		runtime.GC() // get up-to-date statistics
		if err := pprof.WriteHeapProfile(f); err != nil {
			log.Fatal("could not write memory profile: ", err)


consume: Started
produce: Started
produce: Sending  0
produce: Sending  1
consume: Received: 0
consume: Received: 1
produce: Sending  2
produce: Sending  3
consume: Received: 2
consume: Received: 3
produce: Sending  4
produce: Done
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