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Go Programming Language

The Go Programming Language, also commonly referred to as Golang, is a general-purpose programming language, developed by a team at Google. The Go language was conceived in September 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson at Google. Go first appeared in November 2009, and the first version of the language was released in December 2012. The official web site of the Go project is http://golang.org/. Go has its own elegance and programming idioms that make the language productive and fun to code. Go also provides a comprehensive standard library. The standard library provides all the core packages programmers need to build real-world, web and network-based programs. Go is a statically typed, natively compiled, garbage-collected, concurrent programming language that belongs primarily to the C family of languages in terms of basic syntax.

The Go Programming Language is an open source project that is distributed under a BSD-style license to make programmers more productive. Go is expressive, concise, clean, and efficient programming language. Go compiles quickly to machine code yet has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. It's a faster, statically typed, compiled language that feels like a dynamically typed, interpreted language.

Go is a compiled language, and like many languages, it makes heavy use of the command line. Go is both the name of the programming language and the name for the toolset used to build and interact with Go programs.

Go is a statically typed programming language. What that means is the compiler always wants to know what the type is for every value in the program. When the compiler knows the type information ahead of time, it can help to make sure that the program is working with values in a safe way. This helps to reduce potential memory corruption and bugs, and provides the compiler the opportunity to produce more perform-ant code. Go struct lets you create your own types by combining one or more types, including both built-in and user-defined types. Structs are the only way to create concrete user-defined types in Go. When you create your own types using struct, it is important to understand that Go does not provide support for inheritance in its type system, but it favors composition of types that lets you create larger types by combining smaller types. The design philosophy of Go is to create larger components by combining smaller and modular components. If you are a pragmatic programmer, you will appreciate the design philosophy of Go that favors composition over inheritance because of its practical benefits. The inheritance of types sometimes introduces practical challenges with regard to maintainability.

In the last decade, computer hardware has evolved to having many CPU cores and more power. Nowadays we heavily leverage cloud platforms for building and running applications where servers on the cloud have more power. Although modern computers and virtual machine instances on the cloud have more power and many CPU cores, we still can't leverage the power of modern computers using most of the existing programming languages and tools. Concurrency in Go is the ability for functions to run independent of each other. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multi core and networked machines, while its novel type system enables flexible and modular program construction. When a function is created as a goroutine, it's treated as an independent unit of work that gets scheduled and then executed on an available logical processor. Goroutines are created by calling the Go statement followed by the function or method that you want to run as an autonomous activity. The Go run-time scheduler is a sophisticated piece of software that manages all the goroutines that are created and need processor time. The scheduler sits on top of the operating system, binding operating system's threads to logical processors which, in turn, execute goroutines. The scheduler controls everything related to which goroutines are running on which logical processors at any given time.